Ethnographic observation

For example, if within a group of people, winking was a communicative gesture, he sought to first determine what kinds of things Ethnographic observation wink might mean it might mean several things. We learn in his diaries that, among other details, Malinowski longed to write great novels even as his scientific writing effectively defined the practice of cultural anthropology for much of the twentieth century.

Corporate events and rituals, particularly the annual staff conference, Christmas party, etc. Geertz, while still following something of a traditional ethnographic outline, moved outside that outline to talk about "webs" instead of "outlines" [34] of culture.

What is Ethnographic Research? Early ethnographers were criticized for their detached stance, particularly by feminist anthropologists, but recent adaptations of the method use it in action research, where the study population itself becomes involved in the request for information and meaning.

Postcolonialism, the research climate shifted towards post-modernism and feminism. The image presents the perspective, experiences, and influences of an individual as a single entity and in consequence, the individual will always contain this image in the group under study.

For example, a critical ethnographer might study schools that provide privileges to certain types of students, or counseling practices that serve to overlook the needs of underrepresented groups. The ethnographer also uses standard categories for cultural description e.

It was also taken over by sociology in the s when the Chicago school studied Ethnographic observation subcultures" in urban America in the great depression. Famous examples include Deep Play: Cultural studiesEuropean ethnologysociologyeconomicssocial workeducationdesignpsychologycomputer sciencehuman factors and ergonomicsethnomusicologyfolkloristicsreligious studiesgeographyhistorylinguisticscommunication studiesperformance studiesadvertisingnursing, urban planningusabilitypolitical science[24] social movement[25] and criminology are other fields which have made use of ethnography.

There is a great variety of interview styles. A critical ethnographer will study issues of power, empowerment, inequality inequity, dominance, repression, hegemony, and victimization. What about the type of apple on the table, did anyone acknowledge if there was a difference between a golden delicious and a Macintosh?

An etic perspective, by contrast, refers to a more distant, analytical orientation to experience. Traditional ethnographic research usually requires at least a year in the field to get a clear understanding of the group; however, rapid ethnographic assessments, like many of the ethnographic studies carried out by the National Park Service, are also conducted.


Choosing the option of elsewhere and moving as a means of remaking self through sheer force of will are basic facets of American character forged in its history as a developing nation of immigrants with a seemingly ever-expanding frontier.

The exact time frame can vary from several weeks to a year or more. The product of this is mainly Ethnographic observation explanations, where statistical analysis and quantification play a subordinate role.

Field issues of respect, reciprocity, deciding who owns the data and others are central to Ethnography Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design, 95 From the many sources collected, the ethnographer analyzes the data for a description of the culture-sharing group, themes that emerge from the group and an overall interpretation Wolcott, b.

It is the honest truth of fieldwork that these two projects are always implicated in each other. Forge a working set of rules or generalizations as to how the culture-sharing group works as the final product of this analysis.

Interviews are often taped and later transcribed, allowing the interview to proceed unimpaired of note-taking, but with all information available later for full analysis.

It spread its roots to the United States at the beginning of the 20th century. Morgan —an American scientist were considered as founders of cultural and social dimensions. In ethnography, the researcher gathers what is available, what is normal, what it is that people do, what they say, and how they work.

Two popular forms of ethnography are realist ethnography and critical ethnography. The researcher begins to compile a detailed description of the culture-sharing group, by focusing on a single event, on several activities, or on the group over a prolonged period of time.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. They achieve a thick, rich description over a relatively small area. Researchers collect other sources of data which depend on the specific nature of the field setting. He was interested in learning the language of the islanders and stayed there for a long time doing his field work.

In certain instances, active collaboration between the researcher s and subject s has helped blend the practice of collaboration in ethnographic fieldwork with the process of creating the ethnographic product resulting from the research.


You need to make sure that you can get the cooperation of the organization you wish to observe, and decide whether you want to look at the whole organization, one part of it or a cross-section.

This suggests that what we look at and what we see are two different things. Ethnography should be acknowledged as a mutual product born of the intertwining of the lives of the Ethnographic observation and his or her subjects for more on these points, please see Hoey Data collection methods and triangulation Most ethnographic research makes considerable use of participant observation, usually triangulated with interviews, with "key informants" in particular.

Since Malinowski was very firm with his approach he applied it practically and traveled to Trobriand Islands which are located off the eastern coast of New Guinea. Ethnography is Ethnographic observation set of qualitative methods that are used in social sciences that focus on the observation of social practices and interactions.

An ethnographic understanding is developed through close exploration of several sources of data. If you would like to use and cite my work on this subject, this is the best way to go. Research can range from an objectivist account of fixed, observable behaviors to an interpretive narrative describing "the interplay of individual agency and social structure.

Site location, built environment, design, etc.Ethnographic Observation I chose to do my Ethnographic Observation at the Hare Krishna temple in Spanish Fork, Utah. I chose this location because I thought it would be the best place to observe different behavior and cultures.

A sample of recorded ethnographic observations What follows is a sample of what ethnographic fieldnotes may look like when they are "written up," as I've asked you to do in your ethnographic exercise.

This is an actual set of fieldnotes from my first visit to a site. It does NOT include a separate. This feature provides a general introduction to ethnographic methods of research with a particular focus on participant observation. Ethnographic methods originate from the social sciences, particularly anthropology, and are about immersing yourself in a particular setting (usually in business research a company or other organization) and.

2 Introduction This document is another in the Ethnographically Informed Community and Cultural Assessment Research Systems. Ethnographic Observation Examples Ethnographic Research Ethnography is a type of social science research that investigates the practices and life of a community, by becoming one of its members.

It is based on learning about a context and the people living in. What is Ethnographic Research? Anthropologists, ethnographers, and other social scientists may engage in something called ethnography.

Ethnography, simply stated, is the study of people in their own environment through the use of methods such as participant observation and.

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Ethnographic observation
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